Ear Diseases

Structure of Ear

Ear consist of 3 parts. outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. Pinna (visible part of the ear) andear canal constitute the outer or external ear. Eardrum seperates the outer ear from middlle ear.  inner ear lies deep inside the skull bone and has two parts,. Cochlea  for hearing and semicircular canals for maintenance of balance. Middle ear is connected with nose and throat by atube known as eustachian tube

Wax in the ear

Wax acts in a protective manner, catching particles that may land in the ear. The ear has normally a self-cleaning mechanism.  One cause of excessive wax buildup is the use of cotton bud. Sometimes, when you use a cotton bud to clean your ear, you can push wax deeper into the ear canal and partially or completely block it. Do not try and remove ear wax with cotton swabs, hair pins, or other hard objects. You can damage your ear canal or eardrum.
Foreign bodie or Insect in the ear

Almost any thig which can enter in the ear has been found as F.B in the ear. Children should not be allowed to play withtoys having small parts. Dont try to remove foreign bodies because you may damage the ear. It has to be removed by a specialist with special instruments. Incase of insect don’t use cotton buds, tweezers, bobby pin, or any other such “tools” in your ear. That will cause further damage. Put several drops of hydrogen peroxide or oil in the ear and after 5

minutes drain it on tissue paper. Check see if insect came out. You may have to do this several

times. If it fails report to an ENT specialist.

Outer ear infection

Ear canal can get ifected by entry of water in the ear or by scratching the ear. Some times there is boil in the ear canal. These conditions are very painful. Pain killers and hot fomentation can reduce the pain but aural toilet by sucction in ENtT clinic is the mainstay of treatment

Fungus in the ear

found in adults. It is common after swimming in chlorinated water. It causes severe itching and pain. Avoid water getting in the ear and use ear plugs while swimming.

Middle Ear infections

Although ear infection is more common in all age groups. Otitis media is the most commonly seen ear infection. It causes an inflammation of the middle ear. Bacterial or viral infections causing colds, sore throat and respiratory problems spread to the middle ear. initially there is pain in the ear then ear may start discharging. Early treatment by Antibiotic, nasal decongestants and analgesics is require

Otitis Externa– Commonest organism causing -Pseudomonas + S.aureus.Rx of benign otitis Externa = combination of hydrocort + aceti acid or polymyxin B sulfate + neomycin sulfate + hydrocort
Malignant Otitis Externa: in elderly diabetic organism-pseudomonasAc
Otitis media – triad of otalgia, URTI, impaired hearing, fever not a prominent feature, H.influenza slightly more prevalent than S.Pneumoniae

Otitis media with effusion (clear colored fluid seen behind the eardrum) -commonest cause = eustachian tube obstruction (also called serous otitis media).

Ear infections may have serious consequences in some pts who have congenital communication with subarach space due to developmental bone defects.

Temporal bone trauma is commenest cause for CSF otorrhea (clinical picture painted – clear liquid ± blood seen after trauma).

Meniere’s disease: Deafness, dizziness and drumming (Hearing loss, vertigo and tinnitus) Middle aged patient with the above clinical features or may have two of them or all three.

Etiology is believed to be an alteration in pressure in the endolymph of the semicircular canal area.

Middle ear pain during air travel: Oral decongestants are useful in adults. Chewing gum may be helpful. Need is more during landing than during takeoff. This is because the external pressure can close the eustacian tube.


The inner ear and brain dysfunction can cause vertigo. Vertigo (giddiness or dizziness) is the feeling that you or your environment is moving or spinning. . Common causes of vertigo are BPPV, Meniers disease, Labrynthitis. Brain tumors etc. In most of the cases Vertigo is not a serious condition and is easily treatable







Dr Professor Brigadier Arshad Chohan is available at: 

*   Dr Chohan’s ENT, 1st floor Rafay  Mall (Near Chaur Chowk), Peshawar Road Rawalpindi.    03315680471 , 03145118532

  •     Timing:
    • 2.00 pm-6.00 pm  daily except Sunday



Email; drchohansent@gmail.com

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